Tayammum (Ablution by Earth):
You are required to perform the Tayammum if you are required to perform the Wudhu or Ghusl, but do not have water. So Tayammum will be performed instead of the Wudhu or Ghusl.
When we said “you do not have access to water”, we don’t necessarily refer to the absence of water, but it includes the case when there is water but there are obstacles that prevent the individual from using it. Tayammum becomes required in such circumstances as explained below:
1. The amount of water is not sufficient to perform the Wudhu or the Ghusl.
2. It is prohibited to use the water like if its owner does not permit the individual to use it.
3. The use of water for Wudhu or ghusl might deplete its quantity in such a way it could not be sufficient to overcome one’s thirst, as well as the thirst of those you care for like your family members, relatives and even your animal that you look after.
4. There is another religious obligation other than Wudhu or Ghusl that require the use of water like purifying the mosque or purifying the clothes or body for performing the prayer and the water is not sufficient for both.
5. There is fear from using the water in Ghusl or Wudhu since such usage cause an illness, increase it or delay its healing.
How to perform Tayammum:
1. Intend to do the Tayammum for the sake of closeness to Almighty Allah.
2. Strike the earth (soil, sand, stone, gravel or soft rock) at once with the palms of both hands at once. It is not sufficient to place the hands on earth without actually striking it.
3. Wipe over the forehead with the inside of the hands together. The forehead is defined to be the area between the hairline at the top, the bones of eyebrows at the bottom and the temples on the sides. It is essential to start wiping from the top.
4. Wipe over the back of the right hand with the palm of the left, starting from the wrist to the fingertips.
5. Wipe over the back of the hand with the palm of the right, begining with the wrist to the fingertips .
Note: it is essential to remove all the barriers that prevnt the earth from reaching the body, such as your ring.
The Conditions of Tayammum:
They are similar to the conditions of the Wudhu including succession (uninterrupted sequence) plus the condition that the material used for Tayammum should not be mixed with what is not correct to use for Tayammum like mixing the earth with ash.