Wudhu (Ablution by Water):
You need to perform wudhu if your body lost its Tahara because of one of the following occurrences:
1. The release of urine.
2. The release of excrement.
3. The break of wind (from the usual place).
4. Sleeping that stops the faculty of reasoning.
5. Anything that stops the faculty of reasoning like sanity, fainting, intoxication and any other reason.
6. Minor or medium Istihadha. (as explained in details in books of religious laws).
How to perform Wudhu:
1. Intention: it is the intention to seek closeness to Almighty Allah when you wash your face and hands and wipe your head and feet. Before you start washing the face, it is recommended to wash your hands and state: bismillah wa billah, allahumma ija’alni minat-tawabeen waj’alni minal-mutatahireen. It is also recommended to rinse the mouth and nose thrice.
2. Washing the face: starting by washing the face with Tahir water from the top of the forehead, i.e. the hairline to the end of the chin vertically and what falls underneath the thumb and the middle finger of the outstreached hand horizontally. In other words, if you were to open your hand and place it on the top of your face in such a way that the tip of the thumb is on one side and the tip of the middle finger is on the other side and then wipe it downwards to the chin. All what it cover is obligatory to wash. It is not mandatory to wash whatever is outside this area from the right or from the left. Note that you do not have to wash under the hair in your face likes the moustache and the beard but wash the apparent part only.
3. Washing the hands: then you wash your hands from the elbow to the fingertips; starting with the right hand from the top of the elbow down to the end of the fingers. Note that it is not correct to wash from the bottom to the top, and doing so makes the Wudhu void. To make sure that the elbow is washed fully, you should begin wash from slightly above it. You, then wash the left arm in the same way as you did for the right arm.
4. Wiping the head: then you wipe the front part of your head which starts from the top of the head to the hairline above the forehead. Note that It is not obligatory to wipe the front part of the head perfectly. It is sufficient to wipe one finger wide. It is obligatory to wipe with the inside of the right hand while the hand is wet from washing of previous parts. Mixing such wetness with new water makes the Wudhu void.
5. Wiping the feet: then you wipe the foot from the toe to the ankle’s talus. The right foot should be wiped with the inside of the right hand and the left foot should be wiped with the inside of the left hand. The right foot should be wiped before the left one.
The Conditions of Wudhu:
1. The sincere intention:
It must be with the intention that it is sincere to Almighty Allah without any intention of showing off or any other intention.
2. The sequence:
It should be sequential i.e. washing the face is before the right hand and then the left hand then the wipe of the head then the right foot then the left foot.
3. The succession:
Performing the Wudhu should be uninterrupted. The succession between the washings and the wipes should be without a time gap in such a way that the previous part is not fully dry before starting the next one.
4. Performing it by one’s self:
You should undertake the performing of all the parts of wudhu as long as you are able to do so.
5. Not performing it in a prohibited way:
Like if performing the wudhu would cause forbidden harm that is prohibited to subject oneself to it, or if performing the wudhu would cause the usage of other’s belongings without their approval or similar reasons. The said is true if you were aware of the prohibition since doing so prevents the sincere intention of the individual to seek closeness to Almighty Allah.
6. The purity of the water and the parts of body invloved in the Wudhu:
The water used to perform the wudhu should be Tahir and the parts of the body that are wiped or washed should be tahir too. It is not a condition in the rest of the body parts to be Tahir as well.
Yes, during the prayer, the whole body should be pure as explained in more details in books of Islamic laws.
7. The water should be unmixed:
The water that is used in wudhu should not be mixed with anything else, like the normal tap water or river water or sea water, and not mixed like orange juice or rose water or the like.
8. The removal of the barrier:
It is obligatory in the wudhu to remove all barriers that block the water from reaching the body parts of the wudhu.